Weight Training Program Design for Optimum Health.

Introduction

For most people, the term ‘exercise’ means aerobic activities like walking, jogging etc. The benefits of weight training (also commonly known as strength training or resistance training; the terms will be used interchangeably) are either overlooked or at best minimized to that of building muscles and improving sports performance. However, we now have a better understanding of the health-related benefits of strength training; the health benefits of enhancing muscular fitness are on par with aerobic fitness, if not more. In my post ‘Health Benefits of Exercise: a grossly underutilised therapy’, I have discussed the health benefits of muscular fitness. Keeping in view the health benefits of muscular fitness, strength training is now a popular form of exercise that is recommended by the World Health Organisation and the US national health organisations such as the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association, for most populations including adolescents, healthy adults, the elderly, and clinical populations (e.g. those individuals with cardiovascular disease, neuromuscular disease etc.).

People of various categories doing weight training.
Fig: People of various categories doing weight training
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Aerobic Exercise Prescription for Optimum Health Benefits

Introduction

In my post, Health Benefits of Exercise: a grossly underutilised therapy, I have discussed the various health benefits associated with physical activity, as a result of which exercise is now aptly being recognised as ‘medicine’. However, to derive optimal health benefits from exercise, an exercise program needs to follow certain parameters, similar to drug prescription, such as frequency, dose (amount), time (duration) and type (of physical activity). In my post Exercise Prescription for Optimal Health Benefits, I have discussed the FITT-VP principles for exercise prescription. In this post, I shall be discussing ‘prescription for aerobic exercise’ based on the FITT-VP principles. Prescription for strength training as per FITT-VP factors will be discussed in the next post. Aerobic exercise is referred to in the literature, both scientific and lay, by various terms. In the scientific literature, it is referred to as cardiorespiratory endurance or aerobic endurance, while colloquially it is referred to as aerobic exercise or just aerobic, or cardio, or cardio exercises, or cardio workout. In this post, these terms will be used interchangeably.

People engaging in aerobic activities.
People engaging in various aerobic activities.
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Exercise Prescription for Optimum Health Benefits

Introduction

Physical inactivity is now identified as the fourth leading risk factor for death globally, accounting for about 6% of the total deaths worldwide. Physical inactivity levels are rising globally, spanning all economic, educational and age strata. This has major implications for the general health of the people worldwide and for the prevalence of lifestyle diseases such as cardiovascular diseases (coronary heart disease and stroke), diabetes and cancer, and their risk factors such as raised blood pressure, raised blood sugar and overweight. Physical inactivity, i.e. lack of exercise, is estimated as the principal cause for approximately 21-25% of breast and colon cancer burden, 27% of diabetes and approximately 30% of coronary artery diseases (which can ultimately lead to heart attack). As per WHO, of the 56.9 million deaths globally in 2016, 40.5 million or 71% were due to lifestyle diseases. You can read about the total burden of these diseases in my post Chronic Diseases: the Silent Killers.

The image depicts a doctor advising a patient to exercise regularly.

Global health is being influenced by three trends: globalisation, urbanisation, and population ageing.

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Health Benefits of Exercise: a grossly underutilised therapy

Introduction

Exercise is being increasingly recognised to play an important role not only in the prevention but treatment as well of multiple lifestyle diseases (chronic diseases), health conditions and risk factors associated with these. In view of the above, exercise is now aptly being recognised as medicine. It is the cornerstone of lifestyle modification to achieve Holistic Health. However, like any other medicine, exercise too has some associated risks, though benefits of exercise on health, far outweigh the risks. However, before proceeding with the benefits and risks associated with exercise, it would be pertinent to understand some important related terms. Even though physical activity and exercise are often used interchangeably, they are not synonymous. The definition of these and some closely related terms are given below:

People of different age, gender and categories participating in different physical activities.
People of different age, gender and categories participating in different physical activities.
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